Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
In China, with the flourishing achievement of Science and technologyexchanging，the Chinese translators are faced with the increasing challenges resultingfrom the international exchanges in scientific and technological fields. English forScience and Technology (EST) translation, as an efficient way of informationexchange and communication in cross-cultural domain, recently gains the popularityof scholars home and abroad. The holding of EST Symposium in Shanghai in 1979declared that China put the study of EST translation in to agenda, which symbolizesthe emergence of EST translation as an independent style and a necessary medium.As the informative text carrying the scientific facts, EST translation possessesthe unique characters in terms of vocabulary, syntax and discourse. The existingtranslation theories applied in EST have been swarmed into the translation field fromthe perspective of stylistics, cognition, etc. However, the quality of EST translationtexts is far from satisfaction, causing some pragmatic failure in scientificcommunication. Pragmatics is the language in use. Pragmatic theories, as a branch ofapplied linguistics, have been widely used in many fields, but are rarely used in ESTtranslation. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the practical strategies in ESTtranslation from the angle of pragmatics, which is beneficial to the realization ofpragmatic and economic value in EST literature.
1.2 Significance of the Study
Along with the rapid progress of science and technology，an incrediblyincreasing demand for communication is close at hand. There is no doubt that ESTtranslation from the perspective of Adaptation Theory is the available way to absorbthe latest scientific development in accordance with current situation.Theoretically, the thesis makes a brief introduction to characters of ESTtranslation, previous study fruits and problems of EST translation, the translationcriterion suitable for EST translation, the profound meaning of Adaptation Theory andthe problem solving strategies of EST based on Adaptation Theory.Practically, the rapid development of science and technology accelerate theadvancement of EST translation. Adaptation Theory emphasizes on the integration ofcommunicative environment with EST characters, which releases EST translationfrom the limit of serious syntax structure. The organic combination of consciousness，profession, flexibility and aesthetic value is of great significance to the improvementin EST translation quality.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Previous Researches on Adaptation Theory and EST Translation
Pragmatic theory is an overall and dynamitic angles to study translation. Thepragmatic theory is indispensable in the completion of translation by raising thecommunicative function of language. There exists two distinct schools in the catalogof pragmatics, that is, the Anglo-American school and the European continentalschool. Anglo-American school is called the micro-pragmatics discussing the sentencestructure, grammatical analysis, deixis，implicature, entailment, presuppossion andspeech act theory, etc. European continental school is the macro-pragmatic, which isinvolved in the discourse analysis, cognitive linguistics, etc. The cross-cultural studyto the pragmatics is demonstrated in the school. As the result, the speech act theorydominated the whole pragmatic fields for a relative long history. The distinguishedscholars are Levinson，Austin, and Grice. The traditional schools put the pragmaticsthe position as the parallel branch of linguistics, with the same position of phonetics,phonology, morphology, etc. Thus, the main task of pragmatics is the analysis of theabove dispersive components. A new perspective of pragmatic study needs to beexplored.Verschueren, the secretary general on the international organization ofIPRA(Intemational Pragmatics Association), is the first person to put forward thelinguistics Adaptation Theory to the whole academic circle. He gives the newexplanation to pragmatics, “a general functional perspective on(any aspect of)language, i.e. as an approach to language which takes into account the full complexityof its cognitive, social and cultural functioning ’’ (Verschueren,2000:17) .
2.2 Theoretical Framework of Adaptation Theory
Jef Verschueren regards the pragmatics as an integration of several essentialangles such as the cognitive, social, and cultural perspectives in relation to the use oflanguage in the communication. From his point of view, adaptation is a process ofmaking choices to realize the communicative purposes and demands in the projectionof the context. In the book Understanding Pragmatics, Verschueren comes up with ascientific and systematic theory , Adaptation Theory, to highlight the practical value oflanguage use in the dynamic, social , cognitive and cultural context. AdaptationTheory provides a new horizon of pragmatic study in utility and dynamics. And thelanguage is just the process of choice making, conscious or unconscious, which canhappen in any level of linguistic elements. What the reader should understand is thefunctioning of language in its full complexity.
Chapter Three Definition and Characteristics of EST.......... 15
3.1 Definition of EST .........15
3.2 Characteristics of EST......... 16
Chapter Four Empirical Analysis of EST Translation from .........31
4.1 Discussion about the EST Translation Criteria......... 31
4.2 Contextual Analysis of EST Lexical Translation ......... 33
4.3 Structural Analysis of EST Syntax Translation......... 47
4.4 Dynamics of Adaptability in EST Discourse Translation......... 59
4.5 Salience of Adaptation Process in EST Discourse Translation......... 69
4.6 Strategies in EST Translation Practice from the Perspectiv......... 70
4.7 Summary 76Chapter Five Conclusion .........77
5.1 Main Findings of the Study .........77
5.2 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Study......... 78
Chapter Four Empirical Analysis of EST Translationfrom the Perspective of Adaptation Theory
4.1 Discussion about the EST Translation Criteria
The basic understanding of the characteristics of EST texts is the base for thefurther study of adaptation to the specific style of EST literature. The degree ofadaptation should naturally be taken into consideration since the application ofAdaptation Theory should combine the basic principles of the specific style of study.And in this paper, the degree of adaptation in EST translation should confirm to thestandards or the criteria of EST translation, which are the unique marks of thescientific literature. As to the criteria of EST translation, there exists a long andvarious kinds of discussion about it home and abroad. Here the author aims to makethe summary of them and gives the inductive analysis, leaving the Reference materialfor the further study in the following parts.In China, the widely accepted criteria of translation is Yan Fu, whose translationstandard is the so-called “ three -character guide”，that is，the principle of faithfulness,expressiveness and elegance. Faithfulness means that the content of target languagetranslation version should be faithful to the source language's. And the expressivenessrefers to the smoothness of the target text, which should be comprehensive andreadable to the target readers.
With the rapid advance of science and technology, the increasing demand for abetter cross-cultural communication in science and technology is greatly needed.Therefore, the perfect and smooth EST translation version with higher readability andacceptance gains the attention to the translators and sci-tech workers. It is the primaryreason for the author to write this paper. This chapter will make the summary of thewhole thesis, and the major findings will be explored as the shining points in thethesis. In the course of study, the author finds some problems in the existing ESTtranslation situation. Because of the facts and limited elements, some limitations ofthe study will be summarized, which will provide the powerful and useful suggestionsto the further research.